Lesson 12: Other Particles 2

Lesson 12 Other Particle 2

Place Particle: 에 (eh), 에서 (eh su), 로 (lo), 으로 (eu lo)
에서부터 (eh su boo tu) 까지 (gga ji) 에까지 (eh gga ji)

Example
I went to school yesterday. – 나는 어제 학교에 갔습니다.
(na neun uh je hak gyo eh gat seum ni da)

I met my friend at church. – 나는 교회에서 친구를 만났습니다.
(na neun gyo hoi eh su chin goo leul man nat seum ni da)

I came to Korea from United States. – 나는 미국에서 한국으로 왔습니다.
(na neun mi gook eh su han gook eu lo wat seum ni da)

In this sentence to is 으로 and from is 에서.
I went to the library to study. – 나는 공부하려고 도서실로 갔습니다.
(na neun gong boo ha lyu go do su shil lo gat seum ni da)

I ran from school to home. – 나는 학교에서부터 집에까지 뛰어 왔습니다.
(na neun hak gyo eh su boo tu jip eh gga ji ddwi uh wat seum ni da)

In this sentence from is 에서부터 (eh su boo tu) and to is 에까지(eh gga ji)
Let’s run to home. – 집까지 뛰어가자.
(jip gga ji ddwi uh ga ja)

Toward Particle: 에게 (eh ge) 께 (gge)

Example
I gave that book to my sister. – 나는 그 책을 내 동생에게 주었습니다.
(na neun geu chaek eul nae dong saeng eh ge joo ut seum ni da)
I gave that book to my father. – 나는 그 책을 아버지께 드렸습니다.
(na neun geu chaek eul ah bu ji gge deu lyut seum ni da)

In an honorific sentence, we have to use 께 (gge) instead of 에게 (eh ge).

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Lesson 11: Other Particles 1

Object Particle: 를 (leul), 을 (eul)

If object has bottom consonant, 을 (eul) comes after object.
If object has no bottom consonant, 를 (leul) comes after object.

Example
I met a friend. – 나는 친구를 만났습니다.
(na neun chin goo leul man nat seum ni da)
I ate dinner with my friend. – 나는 친구와 저녁을 먹었습니다.
(na neun chin goo wa ju nyuk eul muk ut seum ni da)

Possessive Particle: 의 (eui)

Possesive Particle is like My, Your, Our, ‘s etc.

Example
My friend came to America. – 나의 친구가 미국에 왔습니다.
(na eui chin goo ga mi gook eh wat seum ni da)

My Brother’s bag is red. – 나의 동생의 가방은  빨간색입니다.
(na eui dong saeng eui ga bang eun bbal gan saek im ni da)

Side by Side Particle : 와 (wa), 과 (gwa)

와(wa) comes if the word in front of it has no bottom consonant.
과(gwa) comes it the word in front on it has bottom consonant.

Example
Steve and I go to same school. – 스티브와 나는 같은 학교에 다닙니다
(Steve wa na neun ga teun hak gyo eh da nim ni da)
I went to baseball park with my friends.- 나는 친구들과 야구장에 갔습니다.
(na neun chin goo deul gwa ya goo jang eh gat seum ni da)

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Lesson 10: Subject Particle

In Korean, particles go after subject and object unlike in English.
We could classify them into several groups
They are Subject Particle, Object Particle, Possessive Particle, Side by Side Particle, Place Particle and Toward Particle. I name them by the way we use each.

Subject Particle: 는 (neun), 은 (eun). 이 (yi), 가 (ga)
If subject has bottom consonant 은 (eun) or 이 (yi) comes after subject.
If subject has no bottom consonant 는 (neun) or 가 (ga) comes after subject.

Example

My Brother is a 16 years old. – 내 동생은 열 여섯살입니다.
(nae-dong-saeng-eun-yul-yu-sut-sal-im-ni-da)
My girlfriend is attending Seoul University. – 내 여자 친구는 서울대학에 다닙니다
(nae-yu-ja-chin-goo-neun-Seoul-dae-hak-eh-da-nim-ni-da)

My cousin visited us from Korea. – 내 사촌이 한국에서 우리를 방문했습니다.
(nae-sa-chon-yi-woo-li-leul-bang-moon-haet-seum-ni-da)

My friend sent me a letter. –  내 친구가 편지를 보냈습니다
(nae-chin-goo-ga-pyun-ji-leul-bo-naet-seum-ni-da)

*** There is honorific particle.
If subject is an elder like mother, father, teacher, grandparents…
You should use 께서는 (gge-su-neun) or 께서 (gge-su) instead of 는(neun) or 은(eun).

Example
My mother told me to pick up garbage.-나의 어머니께서는 쓰레기를 주으라고 말씀하셨습니다 (na-eui-uh-mu-ni-gge-su-neun-sseu-le-gi-leul-joo-eu-la-go-mal-sseum-ha-shut-sem-ni-da)

Our teacher gave us homework. – 선생님께서 숙제를 내주셨습니다
(sun-saeng-nim-gge-su-sook-je-leul-nae-joo-shut-seum-ni-da)

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Lesson 9: Korean Negative Imperatives

Positive Imperative Negative Imperative
Informal Do – 해 (hae) Don’t – 하지마 (ha-ji-ma)
Formal Do – 해요(hae-yo) Don’t – 하지마요 (ha-ji-ma-yo)
Honorific Do – 하세요(ha-se-yo) Don’t – 하지마세요 (ha-ji-ma-se-yo)

Informal negative
Rule : Take 다 (da) off from basic form of verbs and attach 지마 (ji-ma) to it.
Example : Do – 하다 (ha-da) – 하지마 (ha-ji-ma)
Eat – 먹다 (muk-da) – 먹지마 (muk-ji-ma)
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가지마(ga-ji-ma)
Write – 쓰다 (sseu-da) – 쓰지마(sseu-ji-ma)

Formal negative
Rule : Attach 요 (yo) to informal form.
Example : Do – 하다 (ha-da) – 하지마 (ha-ji-ma) – 하지마요 (ha-ji-ma-yo)
Eat – 먹다 (muk-da) – 먹지마 (muk-ji-ma) – 먹지마요 (muk-ji-ma-yo)
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가지마 (ga-ji-ma) – 가지마요 (ga-ji-ma-yo)
Write – 쓰다 (sseu-da) – 쓰지마 (sseu-ji-ma) – 쓰지마요 (sseu-ji-ma-yo)

Honorific negative
Rule : Take 다(da) off a plain form of verbs and attach 지마세요(ji-ma-se-yo)
Example : Do – 하다 (ha-da) – 하지마세요 (ha-ji-ma-se-yo)
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가지마세요 (ga-ji-ma-se-yo)
Wear – 입다 (ib-da) – 입지마세요 (ib-ji-ma-se-yo)
Wash – 씻다 (ssit-da) – 씻지마세요 (ssit-ji-ma-se-yo)
Smile – 웃다 (oot-da) – 웃지마세요 (oot-ji-ma-se-yo)
Play – 놀다 (nol-da) – 놀지마세요 (nol-ji-ma-se-yo)

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Lesson 8: Korean Imperatives

Korean imperatives have three types. They are informal, formal, honorific imperatives.

Imperative Positive
Informal Do – 해 (hae)
Formal Do – 해요 (hae-yo)
Honorific Do – 하세요 (ha-se-yo)

The informal form is used among very close friends or when talking to a younger person who is very close to you in informal situations.

The formal form and the honorific form are used in formal situations. It is safe to use the honorific form if you are unsure which one to use.

Informal Imperatives

Example: Wear – 입다 (ib-da) – 입어 (ib-uh)
Eat – 먹다 (muk-da) – 먹어 (muk-uh)
Play – 놀다 (nol-da) – 놀아 (nol-ah)
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가 (ga)
Drink – 마시다 (mashi-da) – 마셔 (ma-shu)
Read – 읽다 (ik-da) – 읽어 (il-gu)

Formal Imperatives

Rule: Informal Imperative + 요 (yo)
Example: Wear – 입어 (ib-uh) + 요 (yo) – 입어요 (ib-uh-yo)
Eat – 먹어 (muk-uh) + 요 (yo) – 먹어요 (muk-uh-yo)
Play – 놀아 (nol-ah) + 요 (yo) – 놀아요 (nol-ah-yo)
Go – 가 (ga) + 요 (yo) – 가요 (ga-yo)
Drink – 마셔 (ma-shu) + 요 (yo) – 마셔요 (ma-shu-yo)
Read – 읽어 (il-gu) + 요 (yo) – 읽어요 (il-gu-yo)

Honorific Imperatives

Rule: 1. Take 다 (da) off from basic verbs and then attach 세요 (se-yo) to verbs if it doesn’t have a final consonant.
2. Attach 으세요 (eu-se-yo) to verbs if it has a final consonant.
3. For verbs with a final consonant of ㄹ, take it off and attach 세요 (se-yo) to it.

Example
Do – 하다 (ha-da) – 하세요 (ha-se-yo)
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가세요 (ga-se-yo)
Wear – 입다 (ib-da) – 입으세요 (ib-eu-se-yo)
Wash – 씻다 (ssit-da) – 씻으세요 (ssit-eu-se-yo)
Smile – 웃다 (oot-da) – 웃으세요 (oot-eu-se-yo)
Play – 놀다 (nol-da) – 노세요 (no-se-yo)

Note: As you learned in Lesson 7 there are special honorific forms like
Eat – 먹다 (muk-da) – 드시다 (deu-shi-da)
Sleep – 자다 (ja-da) – 주무시다 (joo-moo-shi-da)
You could make these imperative with rule 1,2, 3.
드시다 (deu-shi-da) – 드세요 (deu-se-yo)
주무시다 (joo-moo-shi-da) – 주무세요 (joo-moo-se-yo)

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Lesson 7: Using Honorific in Korean

Korean is probably the only language that has an honorific grammatically.

1. In honorific sentence 시 (shi) added to the verb.
Go – 가다 (ga-da) – 가시다 (ga-shi-da)
Come -오다 (oh-da) – 오시다 (oh-shi-da)
Wear – 입다 (ib-da) – 입으시다 (ib-eu-shi-da)
Shoot – 쏘다 (sso-da) – 쏘시다 (sso-shi-da)
Do – 하다 (ha-da) – 하시다 (ha-shi-da)

Example:
I go to school. – 나는 학교에 갑니다
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-gam-ni-da)
My Mother goes to the market. – 나의 어머니는 시장에 가십니다.
(na-eui-uh-mu-ni-neun shi-jang-eh-ga-shim-ni-da)

In this sentence, note that present tense verb 갑니다(gam-ni-da) changes to
가십니다 (ga-shim-ni-da)

2. My friend came. – 내 친구가 왔습니다.
(nae-chin-goo-ga-wat-seum-ni-da)
My Father came. – 내 아버지께서 오셨습니다.
(nae-ah-bu-ji-gge-su-oh-shut-sem-ni-da)

In this sentence, note that subject-particle  가(ga) changes to
께서 (gge-su) and past tense verb 왔습니다 (wat seum-ni-da) changes to 오셨습니다.(oh-shut-sem-ni-da)

3. Some of the pronouns change to an honorific too.
When you speak to older people,
I –나는 (na-neun) has to change to 저는(ju-neun)
We-우리들은(woo-li-deul-eun) has to change to 저희들은(ju-hee-deul-eun)

4. Some verbs changes irregular way.
Eat-먹다 (muk-da) -드시다 (deu-shi-da)
Talk-말하다(mal-ha-da)-말씀하시다(mal-sseum-ha-shi-da)

Example:
I talked to my father. – 나는 나의 아버지께 말했습니다.
(na-neun-na-eui-ah-bu-ji-gge-mal-haet-seum-ni-da)
My father talked to me. – 나의 아버지께서 내게 말씀하셨습니다.
(na-eui-ah-bu-ji-gge-su-nae-ge-mal-sseum-ha-shut-sem-ni-da)

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Lesson 6: Negative Sentences in Korean

Negative Sentences

Basic negative word is 아니다 (not).

Basic Sentence: A is B——–A 는 B입니다
Negative Sentence : A is not B. —-  A는 B가(이) 아닙니다.
If Word B has a bottom consonant, we use 이.
If Word B has no bottom consonant, we use 가.
Practice

1) I am a student. – 나는 학생입니다.
( na-neun-hak-saeng-im-ni-da)
I am not a student.  – 나는 학생이 아닙니다
(na-neun-hak-saeng-ee-ah-nim-ni-da)

2) That is a school- 저것은 학교입니다.
(ju-gu-seun-hak-gyo-im-ni-da)
That is not a school – 저것은 학교가 아닙니다
(ju-gu-seun-hak-gyokga-ah-nim-ni-da)

Basic Sentence: A go to B – A는 B에 갑니다.
Negative Sentence  A don’t (doesn’t) go to B —– A는 B에 가지않습니다.
——A는 B에 안갑니다.

Note that word 않습니다 has mixed bottom consonant ㄶ
(ㅎdoesn’t make any sound.)

Practice

1)    I go to school.- 나는 학교에 갑니다
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-gam-ni-da)
I don’t go to school- 나는 학교에 가지않습니다.
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-ga-ji-an-seum-ni-da)
–    나는 학교에 안갑니다
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-an-gam-ni-da)

2) They went to the park.-그들은 공원에 갔습니다.
(geu-deul-eun-gong-won-eh-gat-seum-ni-da)
They didn’t go to the park – 그들은 공원에 가지않았습니다.
(geu deul-eun-gong-won-eh-ga-ji-an-gat-seum-ni-da)
–    그들은 공원에 안갔습니다.
(geu-deul-eun-gong-won-eh-an-gat-seum-ni-da)

3) Are you a student? – 당신은 학생입니까?
(dang-shin-eun-hak-saeng-im-ni gga?)
Aren’t you a student? – 당신은 학생이 아닙니까?
(dang-shin-eun-hak-saeng-ee-ah-nim-ni-gga?)

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Lesson 5: Questioning Sentences in Korean

Interrogative Sentences in Korean

Basic Sentence: A is B——–A 는 B입니다.
Questioning Sentence: Is A B? —— A는 B 입니까?
다 changes  into 까

Practice 1

I am a student. – 나는 학생입니다. ( na-neun-hak-saeng-im-ni-da)
Am I a student? – 나는 학생입니까? (na-neun-hak-saeng-im-ni-gga?)

This is a desk. – 이것은 책상입니다. (yi-gu-seun-chaek-sang-im-ni-da)
Is this a desk? – 이것은 책상입니까? (yi-gu-seun-chaek-sang-im-ni-gga?)

Basic Sentence : A go to B – A는 B에 갑니다.
Questioning Sentence : Does A go to B – A는 B에 갑니까?
다 changes into 까

Practice 2

We go to church. – 우리들은 교회에 갑니다.
(woo-li-deul-eun-gyo-hoi-e-gam-ni-da)
Do we go to church? – 우리들은 교회에 갑니까?
(woo-li-deul-eun-gyo-hoi-e-gam-ni-gga?)

They went to the park.-그들은 공원에 갔습니다.
(geu-deul-eun-gong-won-e-gat-seum-ni-da)
Do they go to the park? –그들은 공원에 갔습니까?
(geu-deul-eun-gong-won-e-gat-seum-ni-gga?)

Basic Sentence
What is this? – 이것은 무엇입니까? (yi-gu-seun moo-ut-im-ni-gga?)
Who are you? – 당신은 누구입니까? (dang-shin-eun-noo-goo-im-ni-gga?)
How much is this?- 이것은 얼마입니까? (yi-gu-seun-ul-ma-im-ni-gga?)

What are you doing?-당신은 무엇을 하고 있습니까?
(dang-shin-eun-moo-ut-seul-ha-go-it-seum-ni-gga?)
Where are you going? – 당신은 어디에 가고 있습니까?
(dang-shin-eun-u-di-e-ga-go-it-seum-ni-gga?)

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Lesson 4: Past, Present, Future Tense for Korean Verbs

Past Tense Practice

I go to school. – 나는 학교에 갑니다.
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-gam-ni-da)
If you want to change to past tense 갑니다 changes to 갔습니다
I went to school yesterday. – 나는 어제 학교에 갔습니다.
(na-neun-uh-je-hak-gyo-eh-gat-seum-ni-da.)

Here are some verbs with a changed form of past tense.
English verb in present tense – Basic Korean verb – present tense – past tense

Go -가다 (ga-da) – 갑니다 (gam-ni-da) – 갔습니다 (gat-seum-ni-da)
Come -오다(oh-da) – 옵니다 (ohm-ni-da) – 왔습니다 (wat-seum-ni-da)
Buy – 사다 (sa-da) – 삽니다 (sam-ni-da) – 샀습니다 (sat-seum-ni-da)
Wear – 입다 (ib-da) – 입습니다 (ib-seum-ni-da) – 입었습니다 (ib-ut-seum-ni-da)
Open – 열다 (yul-da) – 엽니다 (yum-ni-da) – 열었습니다 (yul-ut-seum-ni-da)
Close – 닫다 (dat-da) – 닫습니다 (dat-seum-ni-da) – 닫았습니다 (dat-at-seum-ni-da)
Walk – 걷다 (gut-da) – 걷습니다 (gut-seum-ni-da) – 걸었습니다 (gul-ut-seum-ni-da)
Run – 뛰다 (ddui-da) – 뜁니다 (dduim-ni-da) – 뛰었습니다 (ddui-ut-seum-ni-da)
Talk-말하다(mal-ha-da)-말합니다(mal-ham-ni-da)-말했습니다(mal-haet-seum-ni-da)
Fight-싸우다(ssa-oo-da)-싸웁니다(ssa-oom-ni-da)-싸웠습니다(ssa- wuat-seum-ni-da)

Future Tense Practice

I go to school. – 나는 학교에 갑니다.
(na-neun-hak-gyo-eh-gam-ni-da)
If you want to change to future tense 갑니다 changes to 갈겁니다
I am going to school tomorrow.-나는 내일 학교에 갈겁니다.
(na-neun-nae-il-hak-gyo-eh-gal-gum-ni-da)

Here are some verbs with a changed form of future tense.
English verb in present tense – Basic Korean verb – present tense-future tense

Play – 놀다 (nol-da) – 놉니다 (nom-ni-da) – 놀겁니다 (nol-gum-ni-da)
Eat – 먹다 (muk-da) -먹습니다 (muk-seum-ni-da) – 먹을겁니다 (muk-eul-gum-ni-da)
Drink – 마시다 (ma-shi-da) – 마십니다 (ma-shim-ni-da) – 마실겁니다 (ma-shil-gum-ni-da)
Dance – 춤추다 (choom-choo-da) – 춤춥니다 (choom-choomni-da) – 춤출겁니다 (choom-chool-gum-ni-da)
Write – 쓰다 (sseu-da) – 씁니다 (sseum-ni-da) – 쓸겁니다 (sseul-gum-ni-da)
Sleep – 자다 (ja-da) – 잡니다 (jam-ni-da) – 잘겁니다 (jal-gum-ni-da)
Drive – 운전하다 (oon-jun-ha-da) – 운전합니다 (oon-un-ham-ni-da) – 운전할겁니다 (oon-jun hal-gum-ni-da)
Meet – 만나다 (man-na-da) – 만납니다 (man-nam-ni-da) – 만날겁니다 (man-nal-gum-ni-da)
Listen – 듣다 (deut-da) – 듣습니다 (deut-seum-ni-da) – 들을겁니다 (deul-eul-gum-ni-da)
Sing – 노래하다 (no-lae-ha-da) – 노래합니다 (no-lae-ham-ni-da) – 노래할겁니다 (no-lae-hal-gum-ni-da)

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Lesson 3: Making a Korean Sentence

Let’s make a sentence.

Basic sentence formation is like this:

{Subject/Topic+particle}  +  {Object+particle}  +   {Verb/Adjective+conjugation}

Example:  나는 학교에 갑니다.

나 is subject
는 is particle
학교 is object
에 is particle
갑니다 is verb

Sentence Practice
1) A is B – A는 B입니다

You could switch A and B.

A can be I (나)  You (당신 or 당신들)  He (그남자)  She (그여자)  They (그들)
We (우리)  this (이것)  that(저것)  these (이것들)  those (저것들)

B can be student (학생)  teacher (교사)  boy (소년)  girl (소녀)  soldier (군인)
police (경찰)  doctor (의사) desk (책상)

I am a student. – 나는 학생입니다. ( na-neun-hak-saeng-im-ni-da)
* If subject has final consonant, 는 has to changed to 은.

They are doctors. – 그들은 의사입니다 (geu-deul-eun-eui-sa-im-ni-da)
* 입니다 sounds like 임니다.

This is a desk. – 이것은 책상입니다. (yi-gu-seun-chaek-sang-im-ni-da)

2) A go to B – A는 B에 갑니다.

You could switch A and B.

A can be I (나) You (당신 or 당신들) He (그남자) She (그여자) They (그들)
We (우리)

B can be school (학교) park (공원) store (가게)  restroom (화장실) hospital (병원)
police station (경찰서)  church (교회)

I go to school. – 나는 학교에 갑니다.
(na-neun-hak-gyo-ae-gam-ni-da)
* basic meaning of “go” is 가다.  In the sentence it changes to 갑니다.

We go to church. – 우리들은 교회에 갑니다.
(oo-li-deul-eun-gyo-hoi-ae-gam-ni-da)

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